TESTAMENT - Separated into 4 divisions:
The Pentateuch traditionally designated as the 5 books of Moses.
Historical Books, number 12, from Joshua to Esther.
Poetical Books, number 4, from Job to Song of Solomon.
Prophetical Books; including the writings of the 4 Major Prophets, from Isaiah to Daniel, and the 12 Minor Prophets
from Hosea to Malachi.
page will cover the first division the Pentateuch.
In Greek, Pentateuchos is the name of the first five books of the Old Testament. The literal translation is “Five
Cases” which probably comes from the originals five rolls being kept in five separate boxes. The early Jews referred
to this part of the Tanakh (Hebrew
Bible) by one of or all of the following titles:
Hat Torah (the law),
Sepher Hat Torah (book of the law),
Torath Mosheh (law of Moses),
Sepher Mosheh (book of Moses),
Sepher Torath Mosheh (book of the law of Moses)
Torah is the name commonly used by most Christians is a Hebrew word meaning any kind of teaching, instruction, or especially Law.
Torah, It primarily
refers to the first section of the, i.e. the first five books of the Bible. The Jews according to the opening Hebrew words named the five books:
Pentateuch: (Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox
Bereshit "in the Beginning"
Genesis: the beginnings of the world and of the Hebrew people
Shemot "And these are the names"
Exodus: departure from Egypt under Moses
Vayika "And he called"
Leviticus: legal rulings concerning sacrifice, purification, and so forth of concern to the priests, who came
from the tribe of Levi
Bamidbar "And he spoke
the numbering or taking census of Israelites in the desert
Devarim "These are the words"
Deuteronomy: meaning "second law," because many laws found in
the previous books are repeated here
Genesis – Greek translation of Bereshit
and having the meanings of "birth", "creation", "cause", "beginning", "source" and "origin”. Genesis
is probably the best know book of the Old Testament due to so many stories that came from it. Such as:
- Creation of the world
- Adam and Eve
- Cain and Abel
- Seth the third son of Adam & Eve and the linage to Noah
- Noah and the great flood
- Abram and Sarai
- Abram and Melchizedek
- Hagar and Ishmael
- Sodom and Gomorrah
- The birth of Isaac
- The Near sacrifice of Isaac
- Esau and Jacob
- Joseph and the coat of many colors
Exodus, meaning "departure" or "out-going" is the second book in both the Torah (the five books
of Moses) and the Tanakh (the Old Testament of the Bible). Exodus, is probably the most
important book of the Tanakh “Old Testament” because this is not only the story of Moses leading the
Hebrew slaves out of Egypt but more important this is where mankind receives God’s Commandments for man’s relationship
to God and his fellow mankind.
Leviticus “priestly” worship is the third book in both
the Torah (the five books of Moses) and the Tanakh (the Old Testament of the Bible). The primary points of the book are concerned
with “priestly” worship with a series of laws regarding: the various sacrifices and the priest duties in performing
the sacrifices. Leviticus also covers various laws concerning: purity and the sacrifices and ordinances for putting away impurity,
the separation between Israel and the heathen, the personal purity of the priests and about the due celebration of the great
festivals, follow by promises and warnings to the people regarding obedience to these commandments, and a section on vows.
Numbers is the
fourth book in both the Torah (the five books of Moses) and the Tanakh (the Old Testament of the Bible). The Hebrew name is
ba-midbar "in the wilderness." The Greek Septuagint version renamed it Arithmoi "Numbers", and this name is still used.
The Septuagint gave this name because of the numbering of the people in the wilderness of Sinai, and of their numbering afterwards
on the plain of Moab. This book covers 38 years and 10 months of wondering in the wilderness. Numbers also covers the positioning
of the tribes in regards to the Tabenacle, the assignment to the Levites exclusively the service of the Tabernacle. Also covered
are laws and ordinances concerning:
- Lepers and other ritually unclean persons who are excluded from
- Reparation for common sins
- An unfaithful wife, her trial by the priest, and her atonement
- “Hallah," or the priest's share of the dough
- The atonement for involuntary sins such as a man gathering sticks on the
- Priestly portions and the tithes given the Levites
- Observance of the feasts, and the offerings for different occasions
- Vows of men and of married and unmarried women.
- Murder and the cities of refuge, and female inheritance.
In addition Numbers covers the multiple punishment of the Israelites for sins against God or others
by fire, leprosy for seven days, and a plague that kills 24,000. And remembered most of all God’s punishment of Moses, of not allowing him to enter Canaan, for striking the rock to produce water
when he was ordered to speak to it
of this law" is the fifth fourth book in both the Torah (the five books of Moses) and the Tanakh (the Old Testament of the
Bible). This book is sinificant in that it was primarly writen by Moses with the last part being completed by someone else.
Deuteronomy covers primarly 3 areas;
- Summarizing the chief events of the past forty years in the wilderness,
with earnest exhortations to obedience to the divine ordinances and warnings against the danger of forsaking the God of their
- The Ten Commandments given by God at Mount Sinai (with some changes to
the text), followed by the Deuteronomic Code, describing admonitions and injunctions to the Israelites regarding their conduct
once they settled in Canaan.
- The solemn sanctions of the law, the blessings to the obedient,
and the curse that would fall on the rebellious.
In addition Deuteronomy tells of Moses just prior to his death and the task he performed: his appointment
of Joshua as his heir to lead the people into the Land of Cananan, and his renewal of the covenant between God and the Israelites.
Deuteronomy also has what could be formally called; three appendices, namely:
A song that God had commanded Moses to write.
The blessings he pronounced on the individual tribes.
The story of his death and burial.